How to Tow a Wakeboarder / Water Skiier / Towable Tube
This article is aimed
at anyone wishing to tow a recreational Wakeboarder, Kneeboarder,
Waterskiier, Wake Skater, Towable Tube, or indeed anything that
involves pulling someone along on the water behind a boat. We
use the generic term "Rider" to mean the person taking
part in the activity, but the term applies to all tow sports.
The Essential Boat
The first thing to understand when you're the driver of a boat that will be towing a participant in any form of water sport is that you are in a position of great responsibility. Please do not take this responsibility lightly as your actions could literally be a matter of life or death. However, don't let this put you off either as with a few basic skills under your belt you can make it safe for everyone and have an fantastic time during the process.
Safety is by far
the boat driver's no 1 priority so please read this article carefully,
commit it to memory, and recite it to yourself on every outing.
Before You Head
Firstly, it is essential that you always have an assistant in the boat with you (known as a spotter). This person will be responsible for communications between you and the Rider and for ensuring the Rider's safe transition between boat and water (and vice versa). Never go out without a spotter as the driver's job is to concentrate on looking in the direction of travel to safely avoiding potential obstacles etc, not looking backwards. Playing the part of the spotter and the driver is extremely dangerous and usually ends in tears. A ski mirror is no substitute for a spotter.
It is your responsibility to ensure that the boat and equipment are up to the job as people's safety will depend on it.
Check that your emergency kill cord is present and that it works properly (i.e. it kills the engine when deployed). Your kill cord is one of the most important safety devices onboard If you don't have a kill cord then don't go out. End of!
Check the fuel level. Skiing and Wakeboarding can drain fuel from a boat's tank like an open tap so always make sure you have a full tank before heading out.
the condition of the battery as skiing requires numerous engine
kill / start sequences and you do not want a dead battery when
out on the water, especially in open seas.
the state of the tides (if applicable) and remember that it is
dangerous to ski in less than 5 feet of water.
the water sports equipment itself for damage or signs of wear.
A cracked or loose binding coming apart at high speed could cause
that you have the correct type/length of tow rope for the job
(especially if you will be multi-rider tubing) and check for signs
of chaffing / fraying.
the tow eye on the boat is in good condition, or if the boat has
d-rings check that the bridle and carabiners are all OK. If you
have a Wakeboard Tower, never tow inflatables from this as the
excessive loads could cause serious damage to the boat and the
that there's plenty of towels, warm clothes, water and chocolate
bars on the boat and don't forget the binding lube (if applicable).
go out late in the evening when the failing light could become
a problem. Darkness falls surprisingly quickly when you're having
fun and are distracted. If in doubt, don't risk it.
It sounds obvious, but never go out if either the driver, the Rider or the spotter are under the influence of drink or drugs.
In addition to the boat and associated hardware, check your Rider(s) too: -
they wearing the correct wetsuit for the conditions? (remember
that a cold Rider will weaken very quickly and could struggle
to tread water after a fall).
their buoyancy aid fit correctly? (an ill-fitting buoyancy will
not only be uncomfortable but it can also be dangerous).
Can the Rider(s) actually swim (never just assume that they can!).
Remember that inexperienced Riders don't know what they don't know so it is up to you to check them over and adjust everything so that they are safe and comfortable. Unfortunately, if you are not happy that a Rider is going to be safe then you may have to make some difficult decisions about whether or not they can ski.
The Essential Rider Safety Briefing - Dockside
It is your responsibility to make sure that everyone knows what they're doing: -
brief your Rider(s) and spotter while you are still on the pontoon.
Explain the boat entry / exit procedure. Show them how the ladder on the boat is extended / retracted.
Explain how to get into the start position and what you and the Spotter will be doing before a run.
Explain how the bindings adjust and how to tighten / slacken them. Det the Rider to practise doing this on dry land as this simple task can suddenly seem much more difficult when treading water.
how a run works and what they can expect.
Explain the retrieval process after a fall. Go into detail and concentrate on the safety aspects so that the Rider is reassured and feels confident.
For Wakeboarders, explain how to get back into the bindings whilst treading water if either foot has come out. Also explain how to flip onto your back if you have crashed and are stuck on your front.
For Water Skiers, explain how to get your skis back on whilst treading water if either of them has come off.
Tubers, explain how to get back into the tube if they have fallen
the role that the spotter plays and how to communicate with them.
that everyone knows the correct hand signals to use (trying to
communicate with a Rider on the end of a 70ft rope above the noise
of the boat is impossible without hand signals).
Go through all of this even if they are experienced as it's always better to be safe than sorry.
Out On The Water
When you are happy with the boat, the Rider(s) and the rest of the kit, PUT YOUR KILL CORD ON and make your way out to the planned ski area and make an assessment of the conditions.
the water is busy with other boats or swimmers then don't even
think about it. You will be travelling at relatively high speeds
and will need a lot of space, especially in the turns.
that boats take time to slow down and people on the end of a 70ft
rope are vulnerable.
a quiet area with fewer (preferably zero) obstacles, and if you
can't find such an area then call it off.
skiing if the water is rough or choppy as it can make boat entry
/ exit dangerous as the stern of the boat and swim platform can
pitch up and down quite heavily. If you've ever tried climbing
into a stationary small boat in choppy conditions you'll understand
exactly what we mean.
that rough conditions also make it more difficult to perform deep
water starts, falls can be that much harder, and Riders can tire
that much quicker.
assessing the conditions, always trust your better judgement and
remember - if in any doubt whatsoever, don't risk it.
Performing a Run
Before anyone even gets in the water, find a safe spot (away from the shore or any obstacles), kill the engine and have a quick refresher chat with the Rider(s) and Spotter. Repeat the boat entry / exit procedure, the retrieval process if they fall, the role of the Spotter, and double-check that they know the hand signals. Then take time to carefully prepare everything, unwind and connect the tow rope etc. Only when everyone is completely comfortable should the Rider actually prepare to exit the boat.
Remember that when anyone is in close proximity to the rear of the boat you MUST kill the engine. It is not sufficient to leave the boat in neutral as the throttle lever could easily get nudged into gear by mistake as people are moving around inside the boat. Remember too that most inexperienced people would be freaked out by the sound of the engine and exhaust if you asked them to go anywhere near the back of the boat with the engine running.
With the engine switched off, allow the Rider to slip into the water in their own time. Once in the water, give them a few seconds to relax (especially if it's a bit chilly and the first bit of water has just entered their wetsuit!). Beginners will probably want to sit on the swim platform and put their Wakeboard / Water Skis on before they go in, whereas more experienced Riders will be fine jumping in and doing this in the water. Either way is fine, but try to encourage inexperienced Riders to get in the water first and put their Wakeboard / Waterskis on whilst treading water as this is an essential skill. Also, Wakeboards and Waterskis can be large and cumbersome when they are not in the water and can easily cause damage to people, equipment, or the boat itself.
Allow as much time as necessary for the Rider to make any adjustments to their kit and to compose themselves. If it's windy, remember that boats can be blown downwind very easily so make sure that your Rider leaves the boat in such a way that the boat is not going to blow straight on top of them i.e. get them upwind as soon as they are in the water. Another top tip is to never anchor up as it is always prefferable for the boat to be drifting in the same direction and at the same rate as anyone in the water.
Now ask the Rider to use their arms to paddle away about 15 feet or so. Remember that the buoyancy of wakeboards and waterskis make them tricky to swim with on your front so make sure the Rider is on their back facing the boat as they paddle away. At this point, get them to practise putting the Wakeboard / Waterskis on and off a couple of times while treading water. For Wakeboarders, also get them to practise flipping from their front to their back a few times. This might seem weird but many early wakeboarding tumbles result in the Rider being on their front with the wakeboard holding their legs firmly behind them. In open seas this can feel quite scary (especially for younger or smaller Wakeboarders) as you end up stuck on your front with your legs held behind you and it can be difficult to keep your head above water if it's slightly choppy. Being able to flip over is actually quite easy but just takes a bit of practise.
Once the rider has got the hang of getting their Skis / Wakeboard on and off and is able to flip from their front to their back (if they're wakeboarding) then ask the spotter to throw the handle out to them and check that the Rider has grabbed it (they may need to paddle over to it) and that the rope is not likely to get wrapped around them. Also make sure that the spotter keeps an eye on the boat-end of the rope so that it doesn't end up wrapped around the prop.
Ask the Rider and the spotter if they are both happy, then have a good look round to make sure nothing is approaching or directly in your path (such as a swimmer, another boat etc.) and then let the Spotter know that you are about to start the engine. With the Rider in view at all times in the mirror, start the engine and put the boat gently in gear but do not open the throttle yet. Let the boat edge forward at a nice slow controlled speed. Ensure that the Spotter feeds the rope as the slack begins to get taken up. Also ensure that the Spotter continually checks that the rope it is clear of the prop.
Begin moving away from the Rider at tickover, lining up in the direction that you intend to ski but without allowing the slack in the rope to be fully taken up. Ask the spotter to keep checking that everything is ok as you edge further away. Do everything, slowly, smoothly, and under control. As soon as the line starts to become taught put the boat in neutral or the rider will get pulled onto their front. At this point you need to be pointing in the direction that you want to ski in with the steering straight, the Rider directly behind the boat, the rope slightly taught but not enough to pull the Rider forward, and the boat in neutral. You are now ready to go!.
Before you open the throttle, your spotter must shout "READY?" to the Rider, to which the Rider must shout "HIT IT", which is the signal to accelerate, or "WAIT" if they need to compose themselves a bit longer. The words "Go" and "No" should not be used as they sound very similar and are hard to differentiate between from the boat.
When you get the signal to "HIT IT", put the boat gently into gear, ensure that the line is taught, and then open the throttle progressively but not too hard or the rider will get a nasty jolt through the rope and will let go of the handle. Getting a Rider out of the water requires a reasonable amount of power so be prepared to give the boat some guns, but do it smoothly and make sure it's only for enough time to get them out of the water or it will be too much strain for the Rider. As soon as the Rider gets up then throttle back smoothly to the desired towing speed (see table below). Tubing does not have the same initial resistance so you do not need to open the throttle anywhere near as hard in order to get going.
Once your rider is up on their feet you need to be extremely alert and totally aware of everything that is going on around you. Continually scan for obstacles, swimmers, and other boats, and remember that other boats can approach you from the side or from behind surprisingly quickly. At this point your spotter needs to be paying total attention to the Rider and communicating any hand signals they make back to you.
At some point you are likely to run out of water and need to make a turn. When you are ready, be very conscious of the pendulum effect that your rider will experience on the end of that rope. Make slow wide turns that keep the boat on the plane and don't allow any speed to scrub off.
Use this table as
a guide to towing speeds: -
/ Combo Skiing - 25 mph
Slalom Skiing - 19-36 mph
Wakeboarding - 16-19 mph
Kneeboarding - 16-19 mph
Barefoot - 30-45 mph
Towable Tubes / Ringos - 8-25 mph
Bananas - 10 mph
Retrieving a Fallen
Collecting a fallen Rider is really easy if you follow a few simple steps. Remember that the Rider may be a little shaken (or possibly even injured) so get to them as quickly as you can but make sure you don't freak them out or endanger them in any way.
As soon as you are aware that your Rider has fallen, spring into action and start the retrieval process without delay. However, never fling the boat immediately into a 180 degree turn as there could be something in your path (such as an approaching boat). Make a swift but thorough assessment of what is going on around you and then safely turned the boat around, remembering that there is still 70ft of rope trailing somewhere behind you that you do not want wrapped around your prop. Get your spotter to do a visual check but generally speaking there isn't usually a need to bring the rope back on board at this stage. Now head back to retrieve your Rider at a reasonable speed (reassuringly fast but not scary from the perspective of the fallen rider).
Remember that boats seem much bigger and more daunting when you are bobbing about in the water with your head at the same level as the boat's waterline . As a driver, always try to keep this in mind and never approach a Rider at excessively high speed or drive directly at them.
The most important this at this stage is that you MUST be able to see the Rider at all times. Stand up if necessary but NEVER lose sight of them. Approach the Rider at a reasonable speed but with the boat travelling such that the Rider will pass about 25 feet from the driver's side (i.e. do not head directly for the Rider). Throttle back slowly as you approach the Rider (approx. 100ft away) in order to minimise wake. Remember that you will have already briefed the Rider on how this process works so they should be comfortable with what's happening.
As you get close bring the boat back to idle but remain in gear. Speed and wake should be minimal at this point. When you are about 20 feet away from the rider make a slow turn to pass 180 degrees directly behind them and then take the boat out of gear and let it drift naturally and maintain the arc. Keep the Rider on the same side as you are and DO NOT LOSE SIGHT OF THEM. Even if your spotter is talking to you and asking you questions about what to do next do not leave the helm of the boat and do not lose sight of the Rider.
At this point you may notice that your Rider suddenly looks anxious and becomes fixated with the boat's propeller. Be 100% sympathetic to this as it is a very common and very natural fear. Tell them that the boat is in neutral and that the prop is not turning. If you feel that you are getting too close to the rider then kill the engine.
Proceed slowly round the back of the rider whilst still in neutral and maintaining a safe distance, then as you complete the 180 degree turn and start moving away from the rider again put the boat back into gear at idle. As you are doing this, the tow rope will gradually follow the boat, passing slowly behind the Rider so that they are able to grab hold of it. You will be able to see the handle quite clearly from the boat but it can be much more difficult when you are in the water so assist the rider if necessary with hand signals. When the rider has grasped the handle you are ready for another run.
If the Rider has
had enough and wants to get back in the boat then simply kill
the engine when they are alongside and ask them to swim to the
stern. Use the tow rope to pull them towards the boat if necessary.
Ask the Rider to remove their Water Skis and then get your spotter
to help them back in. Try not to let waterskis drift off at this
point as they tend to flip upside down and can then be difficult
to find. Remember too that there is still 70ft of rope somewhere
so make sure the spotter has wound it neatly back into the boat
before you head off again. At this point, make sure the Rider
is warm and offer them water and a chocolate bar.
Towing Towable Tubes
/ Towable Inflatables
Tubing is less energetic than wakeboarding or water skiing, but it can be just as exhilarating and just as dangerous so always remember these pointers to ensure that no-one gets hurt.
give adult tubers the best ride simply weave slowly from left
to right in gentle arcs so that the tube(s) cross back and forth
over the wake.
Don't overdo the speed or the tightness of the turns or things can go very wrong very quickly.
a few passes, stop the ride and just check that everyone is comfortable
with the speed. Knowing how to ask the driver to slow down is
one thing but if you are too scared or completely unable to let
go with one hand then it is useless.
give kids the best ride, do everything you would do for an adult
but about 50% slower. They won't notice and will still feel like
they're doing 100mph, even if it's actually only 10.
a rope that's at least 50ft long or your tuber will be gulping
great mouthfulls of toxic boat exhaust fumes.
fall into the trap of thinking that flipping people out at high
speed is the aim of tubing. This is when most injuries occur,
and many tubes are difficult to get back into if you fall.
aware at all time of obstacles on each side of you so that you
don't inadvertently slam your passenger into a solid object.
aware that tubers lying on their front can suffer back injuries
if you bounce them around too much.
aware that tubers riding in the seated position carry the additional
risk of their knees bouncing into their head.
you are pulling two tubes at the same time, ensure that the ropes
are the same length and be extra vigilant so that the inevitable
collisions are kept gentle and under control.
is easier to avert danger when you are Waterskiing or Wakeboarding
as you can steer or let go of the rope. Tubers don't have this
luxury so their safety is entirely in your hands.
- Rules of the Sea
a Rider is being closely followed by another boat, the Rider should
remain inside the wake and refrain from performing tricks until
the other boat is at a safe distance.
two boats are approaching each other on a head-on course, the
rule is that you should turn slightly starboard (right) and pass
port to port (left to left).
two boats are moving in the same direction, the faster boat may
pass the slower boat on either side, but passing on the port (left)
side is preferable.
two boats are approaching at 90 degrees on a collision course,
the boat on the right has the right of way and should maintain
its course while the boat on the left should change course. However,
a certain amount of common sense is required so don't deliberately
cause an accident just to hold your ground and prove a point.
Sailing boats and those propelled by oars or paddles have the right of way over motor boats.
Basic Boat Tips
keep your boat deck tidy of tow ropes, watersports equipment and
other personal possessions / junk. This will allow people to move
freely around the boat and will minimise trip hazards.
any towable tubes just before you need them and deflate them again
when not in use. Tubes can lift off when the boat is travelling
at speed and can strike passengers.
sure there's plenty of towels, warm clothes, water and chocolate
bars on board for hungry / tired / cold passengers.
a carrier bag on board for all of the rubbish that always seems
to accumulate. Always take your rubbish home with you, never ditch
it over the side.
observe speed limits, swimming areas, and no-ski zones.
Be courteous to other people at all times and always observe the "Rules of the Sea".